B1 Part 1 covers the B1 topics that are related to the human body and health.

B1.1 Keeping Healthy

A combination of a balanced diet and regular exercise is needed to help keep the body healthy. Our bodies provide an excellent environment for many microbes which can make us ill once they are inside us. Our bodies need to stop most microbes getting in and deal with any microbes which do get in. Vaccination can be used to prevent infection.

B1.2 Nerves and Hormones

The nervous system and hormones enable us to respond to external changes. They also help us to control conditions inside our bodies. Hormones are used in some forms of contraception and in fertility treatments. Plants also produce hormones and respond to external stimuli.

B1.3 Drugs

Drugs affect our body chemistry. Medical drugs are developed and tested before being used to relieve illness or disease. Drugs may also be used recreationally as people like the effect on the body. Some drugs are addictive. Some athletes take drugs to improve performance. People cannot make sensible decisions about drugs unless they know their full effects.

Lesson Summaries

Specification Reference

Summary of Specification contents. Learning Outcomes

B1.1.1 Keeping Healthy

B1 Lesson 1&2 Healthy Diet

a Know the right balance of the different foods you need and the right amount of energy. Evaluate information about the effect of food on health.
Explain how carbohydrates, fats and proteins are used by the body to release energy and to build cells.
State that mineral ions and vitamins are needed in small amounts for healthy functioning of the body.

B1 Lesson 3 Factors affecting metabolic rate and health

c Metabolic rate – The rate at which all the chemical reactions in the cells of the body are carried out Describe factors that affect the metabolic rate, eg the rate varies with the amount of activity you do and the proportion of muscle to fat in your body.
d Inherited factors affect health, eg metabolic rate and cholesterol level. Explain how inherited factors can also affect our health; these include metabolic rate and cholesterol levels.

B1 Lesson 4 Balance of the intake of energy expended

b A person loses mass when the energy content of the food taken in is less than the amount of energy expended by the body. Analyse and evaluate claims made by slimming programmes and products
e Regular exercise improves your health. Evaluate information about the effect of lifestyle on development of diseases.

B1.1.2 How our bodies defend themselves against infectious diseases

B1 Lesson 5 Pathogens and Aseptic Technique

a Pathoges cause disease Explain how pathogens cause disease
Carry out and describe aseptic techniques

B1 Lesson 6 Semmelweiss

f Semmelweiss recognised the importance of hand- washing to reduce the spread of infection. Describe the work of Semmelweiss and link to results of class investigations.

B1 Lesson 7 How microbes make us ill and how the body protects itself

b Microbes can reproduce rapidly inside the body and produce toxins that make us feel ill. Explain how microbes make us feel ill and how viruses damage cells.
c The body has different ways of protecting itself against pathogens. Describe ways in which the body defends itself against disease.
d White blood cells ingest pathogens and produce antibodies and antitoxins. Describe the actions of white blood cells using terms ‘ingest’, ‘antibodies’ and ‘antitoxins’.

B1 Lesson 8 Natural and Acquired immunity

e Immunity and action of antibodies. Explain the processes of natural and acquired immunity.

B1 Lesson 9 Vaccines

l Vaccines – what they are and how they work. Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of being vaccinated against a disease, eg the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine.

B1 Lesson 10 Medicines

g Use of medicines to relieve symptoms. Use aseptic techniques and explain the precautions taken when handling microorganisms.
m Investigating the action of disinfectants and antibiotics; aseptic techniques; incubation temperatures.

B1 Lesson 11 Antibiotic Resistance

h Use of antibiotics – how they work and problems of overuse. Explain how the treatment of disease has changed due to understanding the action of antibiotics and immunity.
I Antibiotic resistance, eg MRSA.
j Mutations lead to resistant strains of pathogens which can spread rapidly. Evaluate the consequences of mutations of bacteria and viruses in relation to epidemics and pandemics.
k Development of new antibiotics to combat resistant bacteria. Explain the difficulty in developing drugs that kill viruses without damaging body tissues.
HT only Explain what we should do to slow down the rate of development of resistant strains of bacteria.

B1.2.1 The nervous system

B1 Lesson 12 Nervous System

a The nervous system enables humans to react to their surroundings and coordinate behaviour. Describe the functions of the main structures in the nervous system.
b Receptors detect stimuli. Match receptors of the eye, ear, tongue and skin with the stimuli they detect.
c Basic structure of a light receptor cell. Label a light receptor cell with a nucleus, cytoplasm and cell membrane.
Explain the importance of being able to respond to environmental changes.

B1 Lesson 13 Reflex actions

d Pathway of nerve impulses and reflex actions. Explain the importance of reflex actions and be able to give examples.
e Describe the pathway of a nerve impulse in a reflex response and explain the roles of the structures involved.
stimulus→receptor→sensory neurone→relay neurone→motor neurone→effector→response
Explain the role of chemicals at synapses.
Describe different ways of measuring reaction time.

B1.2.2 Control in the human body

B1 Lesson 14 Control in the human body

a The need to control water and ion content of the body, temperature and blood sugar levels. Describe some conditions that need to be controlled in the body.
Measure body temperature.
Explain why body temperature has to be controlled.

B1 Lesson 15 Hormones

b Hormones are chemical produced by glands and transported to target organs in the blood. Explain what hormones are.
c Hormonal control of the menstrual cycle – FSH, LH and oestrogen. Give some changes that occur at puberty and link with secretion of hormones.
d Describe the function of FSH, LH and Oestrogen and state the glands that produce them.

B1 Lesson 16 Hormones

e Uses of hormones in the control of fertility – oral contraception and fertility drugs. Evaluate the benefits and problems of using hormones to control fertility.
State the hormones that may be present in oral contraceptives.
Link the hormones used in oral contraceptives to their effects on the body.
Produce a flow diagram to explain the process of In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF).

B1.2.3 Control in plants

B1 Lesson 17 Hormones

a Plant shoots and roots respond to light, moisture and gravity. Describe how plant shoots and roots respond to light, gravity and moisture.
b Hormones control and coordinate growth in plants. Draw diagrams to explain the role of auxin in plant responses in terms of unequal distribution in shoots and roots.
c Responses to light, gravity and moisture are controlled by the unequal distribution of auxin which causes unequal growth rates in shoots and roots.

B1 Lesson 18 Use of Plant hormones in agriculture

d Use of plant hormones in agriculture and horticulture. Explain how plant hormones are used as weed killers and rooting hormones.

B1 1.3.1 Drugs

B1 Lesson 19 Drugs

a & b Testing of new drugs and clinical trials. Define the term ‘drug’.
Give examples of medical drugs.
Explain why drugs need to be tested before they can be prescribed.
Describe the main steps in testing a new drug.
Explain the terms placebo and double-blind trial.
d Thalidomide Describe the uses and problems associated with thalidomide.
Explain how the drug testing procedure for thalidomide was inappropriate.

B1 Lesson 20 Drugs Statins and Recreational Drugs

c Statins lower the amount of cholesterol in the blood. Describe and evaluate the effect of statins in cardiovascular disease.
e Recreational drugs Name some recreational drugs
Describe some effects of caffeine on the body.

B1 Lesson 21 Smoking

e Recreational drugs Evaluate the impact of smoking on health.
g Impact of legal drugs on health is greater than illegal drugs as more people use them. Evaluate why some people use legal drugs for recreation.
Evaluate claims made about the effect of prescribed and non-prescribed drugs on health.

B1 Lesson 22 Alcohol

e The effects of misuse of the legal recreational drugs, alcohol and nicotine. The misuse of the illegal recreational drugs ecstasy, cannabis and heroin may have adverse effects on the heart and circulatory system. Evaluate the impact of alcohol on health.
Evaluate why some people use illegal drugs for recreation.
g Impact of legal drugs on health is greater than illegal drugs as more people use them. Evaluate claims made about the effect of prescribed and non-prescribed drugs on health.

B1 Lesson 22 Cannabis

f Cannabis is an illegal drug. Cannabis smoke contains chemicals which may cause mental illness in some people. Describe the effects of cannabis on the body.
h Drugs change the chemical processes in peoples’ bodies so that they may become dependent or addicted to the drug and suffer withdrawal symptoms without them. Heroin and cocaine are very addictive. Consider the possible progression from recreational to hard drugs.
Describe the effects of heroin/cocaine addiction and withdrawal symptoms.

B1 Lesson 23 Steroids and Performance enhancing drugs

I There are several types of drug that an athlete can use to enhance performance. Some of these drugs are banned by law and some are legally available on prescription, but all are prohibited by sporting regulations. Examples include stimulants that boost bodily functions such as heart rate; and anabolic steroids which stimulate muscle growth. Evaluate the use of drugs to enhance performance in sport.
Consider the ethical issues of performance enhancing drugs.
Describe some effects and risks of these drugs.

Summary of B1.1, B1.2 and B1.3

B1 Lesson 24 Summary of B1.1, B1.2 and B1.3

Summary of B1.1, B1.2 and B1.3

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