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OverviewEdit

B1 Part 1 covers the B1 topics that are related to interdependence, competition, genetics and evolution.

B1.4 Interdependence and adaptationEdit

Organisms are well adapted to survive in their normal environment. Population size depends on a variety of factors including competition, predation, disease and human influences. Changes in the environment may affect the distribution and behaviour of organisms.

B1.5 Energy and biomass in food chainsEdit

By observing the numbers and sizes of the organisms in food chains we can find out what happens to energy and biomass as it passes along the food chain.

B1.6 Waste materials from plants and animalsEdit

Many trees shed their leaves each year and most animals produce droppings at least once a day. All plants and animals eventually die. Microorganisms play an important part in decomposing this material so that it can be used again by plants. The same material is recycled over and over again and can lead to stable communities.

B1.7 Genetic variation and its controlEdit

There are not only differences between different species of plants and animals but also between individuals of the same species. These differences are due partly to the information in the cells they have inherited from their parents and partly to the different environments in which the individuals live and grow. Asexual reproduction can be used to produce individuals that are genetically identical to their parent. Scientists can now add, remove or change genes to produce the plants and animals they want.

B1.8 EvolutionEdit

Particular genes or accidental changes in the genes of plants or animals may give them characteristics which enable them to survive better. Over time this may result in entirely new species. There are different theories of evolution. Darwin's theory is the most widely accepted.

Lesson SummariesEdit

Specification Reference Summary of Specification contents. Learning Outcomes

B1.4.1 AdaptationsEdit

B1 Lesson 25&26 AdaptationsEdit

d Organisms, including microorganisms, have features (adaptations) that enable them to survive in the conditions in which they normally live. Observe adaptations of a range of organisms.
Explain how organisms are adapted to survive in their habitat.
Describe adaptations that some organisms have to avoid being eaten.
e Some organisms live in environments that are very extreme. Extremophiles may be tolerant to high levels of salt, high temperatures or high pressures. Define the term extremophile and be able to give general examples.
f Animals may be adapted for survival in dry and arctic environments by means of: ■ changes to surface area ■ thickness of insulating coat ■ amount of body fat ■ camouflage. Describe and explain adaptations for animals for survival in the Arctic and Deserts
Plants may be adapted to survive in dry environments by means of: ■ changes to surface area, particularly of the leaves ■ water-storage tissues ■ extensive root systems. Describe and explain adaptations for plants to survive in dry environments.

B1 Lesson 27&28 CompetitionEdit

a Organisms require materials from their surroundings and from other organisms to survive. List factors that affect the survival of organisms in their habitat.
b Plants compete for light, space, water and nutrients. Give examples of resources that plants and animals compete for in a given habitat.
c Animals compete for food, mates and territory. Interpret population curves.

B1.4.2 Environmental changeEdit

B1 Lesson 29&30 Environmental ChangeEdit

a Environmental change and the distribution of organisms. Evaluate data on environmental change and the distribution and behaviour of living organisms.
b Environmental changes due to living and non-living factors. Give examples of how an environment can change.
c Indicators of pollution – lichens and invertebrates. Interpret data on lichen distribution and sulfur dioxide levels.
d Measuring environmental changes. Interpret data on invertebrates and water pollution.

B1.5.1 Energy in biomassEdit

B1 Lesson 31 BiomassEdit

a The Sun is the source of energy for most communities; photosynthesis. Describe how energy and mass is transferred along a food chain.
b Pyramids of biomass. Explain why energy and biomass is reduced at successive stages in a food chain.

B1 Lesson 32 BiomassEdit

b Pyramids of biomass Describe how energy and mass is transferred along a food chain.
c Energy losses in food chains Explain why energy and biomass is reduced at successive stages in a food chain.

B1.6.1 Decay processesEdit

B1 Lesson 33&34 Decay ProcessesEdit

a Living things remove materials from the environment for growth and other processes; these are returned to the environment in wastes and when organisms die and decay. Explain the carbon cycle in terms of photosynthesis, respiration, feeding, death and decay, combustion of wood and fossil fuels.
Explain the role of microorganisms and detritus feeders in decay.
b Conditions for decay State factors affecting the rate of decay.
c Decay releases nutrients for plant growth. Explain how decay is useful to plants.
d Material is constantly cycled and can lead to stable communities. Evaluate the necessity and effectiveness of recycling organic kitchen or garden wastes.

B1.6.2 The carbon cycleEdit

B1 Lesson 35 The Carbon CycleEdit

a The main processes involved in the carbon cycle. Explain the carbon cycle in terms of photosynthesis, respiration, feeding, death and decay, combustion of wood and fossil fuels.
Explain the role of microorganisms and detritus feeders in decay.

B1.7.1 Why organisms are differentEdit

B1 Lesson 36 VariationEdit

d Genetic and environmental causes of variation. Classify characteristics as being due to genetic or environmental causes.
Decide the best way to present information about variation in tables and charts.

B1 Lesson 37 GenesEdit

c Different genes control different characteristics. Label diagrams to illustrate the order of size of cell, nucleus, chromosome and gene.
a Genes carry information about characteristics and are passed from parents to offspring in gametes.
b Nucleus contains chromosomes that carry genes.

B1.7.2 ReproductionEdit

B1 Lesson 38 Sexual and Asexual reproductionEdit

a There are two forms of reproduction – sexual results in variation in the offspring due to mixing of genes; asexual produces genetically identical clones.
b New plants can be produced by taking cuttings. They are genetically identical to the parent plant.

B1 Lesson 39 The Ethics of Cloning, and Tissue Culture and Embryo transplantsEdit

c Modern cloning techniques – tissue culture, embryo transplants and adult cell cloning. Interpret information about cloning techniques.
Make informed judgements about the economic, social and ethical issues concerning cloning.
Describe the process of tissue culture in plants.
Explain the importance of cloning to plant growers.

B1 Lesson 40 Adult cell cloningEdit

c Modern cloning techniques – tissue culture, embryo transplants and adult cell cloning. Describe the process of adult cell cloning in animals.
Explain advantages and disadvantages of cloning techniques.

B1 Lesson 41 Genetic engineeringEdit

d Genetic engineering techniques. Define the term ‘genetic engineering’.
e Examples of genetic engineering. Describe the process of genetic engineering to produce bacteria that can produce insulin and crops that have desired characteristics.
f Concerns about genetically modified (GM) crops Interpret information about genetic engineering techniques.
Make informed judgements about the economic, social and ethical issues concerning genetic engineering.
Explain advantages and disadvantages of genetic engineering.

B1.8.1 EvolutionEdit

B1 Lesson 42 Competing theories of EvolutionEdit

a Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection. State the theory of evolution.
c Other theories, eg Lamarck, are based mainly on the idea that changes that occur in an organism during its lifetime can be inherited. Describe different theories of evolution.
Suggest reasons for the different theories.

B1 Lesson 43 Evolution by natural selectionEdit

e Evolution occurs by natural selection. Identify differences between Darwin’s theory of evolution and conflicting theories.
Explain the terms ‘inherited’ and ‘acquired’ characteristics.
Describe the stages in natural selection.
f Mutations may lead to more rapid evolution. Define the term ‘mutation’.
Explain why mutation may lead to more rapid change in a species.

B1 Lesson 44 Evolution by natural selectionEdit

b The theory of evolution was only gradually accepted. Suggest reasons why Darwin’s theory was only gradually accepted.
Interpret evidence relating to evolutionary theory.
d Studying similarities and differences between organisms allows us to classify them as animals, plants or microorganisms. Classify organisms based on their similarities.

Summary of B1.4, B1.5, B1.6 and B1.7Edit

B1 Lesson 45 Summary of B1.4, B1.5, B1.6 and B1.7Edit

Summary of B1.4, B1.5, B1.6 and B1.7

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