C1 Part 1 starts with an introduction to atomic structure and covers the material relating to the uses of limestone, the extraction and use of metals and crude oil.

C1.1 Fundamentals of Chemistry

Atoms and elements are the building blocks of chemistry. Atoms contain protons, neutrons and electrons. When elements react they produce compounds.

C1.2 Limestone and Building Materials

Rocks provide essential building materials. Limestone is a naturally occurring resource that provides a starting point for the manufacture of cement and concrete.

C1.3 Metals and their uses

Metals are very useful in our everyday lives. Ores are naturally occurring rocks that provide an economic starting point for the manufacture of metals. Iron ore is used to make iron and steel. Copper can be easily extracted but copper-rich ores are becoming scarce so new methods of extracting copper are being developed. Aluminium and titanium are useful metals but are expensive to produce. Metals can be mixed together to make alloys.

C1.4 Crude Oil

Crude oil is derived from an ancient biomass found in rocks. Many useful materials can be produced from crude oil. Crude oil can be fractionally distilled. Some of the fractions can be used as fuels. Biofuels are produced from plant material. There are advantages and disadvantages to their use as fuels. Fuels can come from renewable or non-renewable resources.

Lesson Summaries

Specification Reference Summary of Specification contents. Learning Outcomes


C1 Lesson 1 Atomic Structure

a All substances are made of atoms. Know that substances are made of atoms. State that substances made of only one sort of atom are called elements.
b Atoms are represented by symbols. Know that elements are found in the periodic table and that groups contain elements with similar properties. State where metals and non-metals appear in the Periodic table.
c Atoms have a small central nucleus, of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons. Know that symbols represent atoms of different elements.
d The relative electrical charges are as shown: Proton +1, Neutron no charge, Electron -1. Know the structure of an atom.
e In an atom, the number of electrons is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus. Atoms have no overall electrical charge. Know the charges on sub-atomic particles.
f All atoms of a particular element have the same number of protons. Atoms of different elements have different numbers of protons. Use the periodic table to work out the number of each type of sub-atomic particle for a named atom.
g The number of protons in an atom of an element is its atomic number. The sum of the protons and neutrons in an atom is its mass number.

C1 Lesson 2 Atomic Structure

h Electrons occupy particular energy levels. Each electron in an atom is at a particular energy level (in a particular shell). The electrons in an atom occupy the lowest available energy levels (innermost available shells). Describe electron arrangements for elements up to number 20.


C1 Lesson 3 The Periodic Table

a Elements in the same group in the periodic table have the same number of electrons in their highest energy level (outer electrons) and this gives them similar chemical properties. Know that elements in the same group have similar reactions because they have identical numbers of outer electrons.
Know that the number of outer electrons determines how an atom reacts. Atoms with eight electrons in their outer shell are unreactive, i.e. the noble gases.
b The elements in Group 0 of the periodic table are called the noble gases. They are unreactive because their atoms have stable arrangements of electrons Know that noble gases have eight outer electrons except for helium, which has two.

C1.1.3 Chemical reactions

C1 Lesson 4 Word Equations

b Chemical reactions can be represented by word equations Write word equations to represent reactions.

C1 Lesson 5 Balanced Symbol Equation

b Chemical reactions can be represented by word equations or by symbol equations. Know how to represent a chemical reaction by using a word equation. HT only Balance a given symbol equation.

C1 Lesson 6 Bonds

a When elements react, their atoms join with other atoms to form compounds. This involves giving, taking or sharing electrons to form ions or molecules Describe the electron arrangements of sodium and chlorine.
Compounds formed from metals and non-metals consist of ions. Describe how an electron is transferred to chlorine from sodium to form two charged particles called ions that attract each other.
Know that compounds made from a metal and a non-metal are made from ions.
Compounds formed from non-metals consist of molecules. In molecules the atoms are held together by covalent bonds. Know that non-metal compounds are made from molecules, held together by covalent bonds.

C1 Lesson 7 Conservation of mass

c No atoms are lost or made during a chemical reaction so the mass of the products equals the mass of the reactants. Know that all atoms involved in a reaction must be accounted for.
Calculate the amount of a product or reactant from masses of other products and reactants (the use of relative atomic masses and relative molecular masses is not needed here).
HT Only: Understand symbol equations, balance symbol equations.

C1.2.1 Calcium carbonate

C1 Lesson 8&9 Calcium Carbonate

a Limestone, mainly composed of the compound calcium carbonate (CaCO3), is quarried and can be used as a building material. Know that limestone is calcium carbonate and that it is quarried.
b Calcium carbonate can be decomposed by heating (thermal decomposition) to make calcium oxide and carbon dioxide. Know that, when heated limestone becomes calcium oxide giving off carbon dioxide.
d Calcium oxide reacts with water to produce calcium hydroxide, which is an alkali that can be used in the neutralisation of acids. Know that calcium oxide reacts with water to make calcium hydroxide.
e A solution of calcium hydroxide in water (limewater) reacts with carbon dioxide to produce calcium carbonate. Limewater is used as a test for carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide turns limewater cloudy. Know that: calcium hydroxide is an alkali that neutralises acids calcium hydroxide dissolves in water to make a solution called limewater limewater reacts with carbon dioxide to make calcium carbonate this reaction is a test for carbon dioxide as the solution goes cloudy.

C1 Lesson 10 Carbonates

c The carbonates of magnesium, copper, zinc, calcium and sodium decompose on heating in a similar way. Know that: metal carbonates decompose on heating to give carbon dioxide and the metal oxide metal carbonates react with acids to produce carbon dioxide limestone is damaged by acid rain.
f Carbonates react with acids to produce carbon dioxide, a salt and water. Limestone is damaged by acid rain.

C1 Lesson 11 Quarries

Know that limestone is needed for buildings and that the positive benefits of using this material should be considered against the negative aspects of quarrying.

C1 Lesson 12 Cement, Mortar and Concrete

g Limestone is heated with clay to make cement. Cement is mixed with sand to make mortar and with sand and aggregate to make concrete. Explain the differences in the making and composition of cement, mortar and concrete.

C1.3.1 Extracting metals

C1 Lesson 13&14 Ores

a Ores contain enough metal to make it economical to extract the metal. The economics of extraction may change over time. Explain how an ore is different from a rock.
b Ores are mined and may be concentrated before the metal is extracted and purified. Know that methods may be used to concentrate an ore before extraction.
c Unreactive metals such as gold are found in the Earth as the metal itself but most metals are found in compounds that require chemical reactions to extract the metal. Know that some metals are so unreactive they can be found as metal in the earth’s surface (crust).

C1 Lesson 15 Reduction of Metal ores

d Metals that are less reactive than carbon can be extracted from their oxides by reduction with carbon, for example iron oxide is reduced in the blast furnace to make iron Know that: metals below carbon in the reactivity series are extracted by heating the oxide with carbon coke ,charcoal and wood are all good sources of carbon removal of oxygen from a compound is reduction.
Use the Reactivity Series to identify the method of extraction of a named metal.

C1 Lesson 16&17 Extraction of Copper, Aluminium and Titanium

f Copper can be extracted from copper-rich ores by heating the ores in a furnace (smelting). The copper can be purified by electrolysis. The supply of copper rich ores is limited. Know that: Copper is initially reduced in a furnace with carbon it is purified by electrolysis copper ores are finite.
e Metals that are more reactive than carbon, such as aluminium, are extracted by electrolysis of molten compounds. The use of large amounts of energy in the extraction of these metals makes them expensive. Know that: Metals can be obtained from solutions by displacement reactions with a more reactive metal electrolysis requires vast amounts of electrical energy and therefore is expensive. the more stages in a process the more expensive it becomes.
h Copper can be obtained from solutions of copper salts by electrolysis or by displacement using scrap iron.
I Aluminium and titanium cannot be extracted from their oxides by reduction with carbon. Current methods of extraction are expensive because there are many stages in the processes and large amounts of energy are needed.

C1 Lesson 18 Phytomining and Bioleaching

g New ways of extracting copper from low-grade ores are being researched to limit the environmental impact of traditional mining. Copper can be extracted by phytomining, or by bioleaching. Know and understand that: Phytomining uses plants to absorb metal compounds and that the plants are burned to produce ash that contains the metal compounds bioleaching uses bacteria to produce leachate solutions that contain metal compounds.

C1 Lesson 19 Recycling

j We should recycle metals because extracting them uses limited resources and is expensive in terms of energy and effects on the environment. Evaluate benefits of recycling metals in terms of economic and environmental benefits.

C1 Lesson 20 Alloys

a Iron from the blast furnace contains about 96% iron. The impurities make it brittle and so it has limited uses. Know the difference between iron from the blast furnace and steel in terms of less carbon in steel than iron from the blast furnace.
b Most iron is converted into steels. Steels are alloys since they are mixtures of iron with carbon. Some steels contain other metals. Alloys can be designed to have properties for specific uses. Low-carbon steels are easily shaped, high-carbon steels are hard, and stainless steels are resistant to corrosion. Know that the many types of steel are really alloys.
c Most metals in everyday use are alloys. Pure copper, gold, iron and aluminium are too soft for many uses and so are mixed with small amounts of similar metals to make them harder for everyday use. Know that alloys have improved properties as a result of the combination of metal atoms.

C1.3.3 Properties and uses of metals

C1 Lesson 21 Transistion Metals

a The elements in the central block of the periodic table are known as transition metals. Like other metals they are good conductors of heat and electricity and can be bent or hammered into shape. They are useful as structural materials and for making things that must allow heat or electricity to pass through them easily. Know that the central block of the Periodic table are known as the Transition metals. Many commonly used metals are in this block.
b Copper has properties that make it useful for electrical wiring and plumbing. Know and understand that copper: is a good conductor of electricity and heat can be bent but is hard enough to be used to make pipes or tanks does not react with water.
c Low density and resistance to corrosion make aluminium and titanium useful metals. Know and understand that Aluminum and Titanium: Have low density and are resistant to corrosion

C1.4.1 Crude oil

C1 Lesson 22&23 Crude oil and Alkanes

a Crude oil is a mixture of a very large number of compounds. Know what a mixture is in terms of elements and compounds.
b A mixture consists of two or more elements or compounds not chemically combined together. The chemical properties of each substance in the mixture are unchanged. It is possible to separate the substances in a mixture by physical methods including distillation. Describe fractional distillation as based on each compound having a different boiling point.
c Most of the compounds in crude oil consist of molecules made up of hydrogen and carbon atoms only (hydrocarbons). Most of these are saturated hydrocarbons called alkanes, which have the general formula CnH2n+2 . Recognise alkanes from their molecular or structural formula.
Describe what the structural formula shows.
Know the general formula for alkanes.

C1.4.2 Hydrocarbons

b The many hydrocarbons in crude oil may be separated into fractions, each of which contains molecules with a similar number of carbon atoms, by evaporating the oil and allowing it to condense at a number of different temperatures. This process is fractional distillation. Know that each compound vaporises and condenses at different temperatures, and so they are separated.
c Some properties of hydrocarbons depend on the size of their molecules. These properties influence how hydrocarbons are used as fuels. Describe the relationship between molecule size and boiling point, viscosity, ease of ignition, and flammability.

C1.4.3 Hydrocarbon fuels (NB Ethanol is discussed here as a Biofuel alternative to hydrocarbons. Ethanol is not a hydrocarbon)

C1 Lesson 24 Crude oil and Alkanes

a Most fuels, including coal, contain carbon and/or hydrogen and may also contain some sulfur. Know that burning fuels releases carbon dioxide, water (vapour), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen into the atmosphere. Solid particles (particulates) may also be released.
c Sulfur dioxide causes acid rain, carbon dioxide causes global warming, and solid particles cause global dimming. Know that these cause global warming acid rain and global dimming.
d Sulfur can be removed from fuels before they are burned, for example in vehicles. Sulfur dioxide can be removed from the waste gases after combustion, for example in power stations. Know how harmful emissions are reduced.

C1 Lesson 25 Biofuels

e Biofuels, including biodiesel and ethanol, are produced from plant material. There are economic, ethical and environmental issues surrounding their use. Describe the use of ethanol and hydrogen as alternative fuels.
Describe advantages and disadvantages of each fuel.

C1 Lesson 26 Combustion of Hydrocarbons

b The combustion of hydrocarbon fuels releases energy. During combustion the carbon and hydrogen in the fuels are oxidised. Know how to measure simply the amount of energy produced by a burning fuel.
Know about different types of error, and how to deal with them.
Understand how secondary sources can help confirm a hypothesis/ theory

Summary of C1.1, C1.2, C1.3 and C1.4

C1 Lesson 27 Summary of C1.1, C1.2, C1.3 and C1.4

Summary of C1.1, C1.2, C1.3 and C1.4