Specification Reference Summary of Specification contents. Learning Outcomes
P1.3.1 Transferring electrical energy P1 Lesson 15&16 The transfer of electrical energy
a Examples of energy transfers that everyday electrical appliances are designed to bring about. Understand the energy transfers that occur in electrical appliances.
b The amount of energy an appliance transfers depends on how long the appliance is switched on and its power. Use the equation to calculate the energy transferred from the mains to an electrical appliance, either in joules or kilowatt-hours.
c To calculate the amount of energy transferred from the mains using the equation: E = P × t Calculate the cost of using individual appliances and also to interpret electricity meter readings to calculate total cost over a period of time.
d To calculate the cost of mains electricity given the cost per kilowatt-hour (kWh)
P1.4.1 Generating electricity P1 Lesson 17&18 How a nuclear or fuel burning power station works
a In some power stations an energy source is used to heat water. The steam produced drives a turbine that is coupled to an electrical generator. Understand the purpose of the main parts of a power station.
Know that different energy sources which heat the water include: the fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) which are burned to heat water or air, uranium and plutonium, when energy from nuclear fission is used to heat water, biofuels that can be burned to heat water.
Know that, of the fossil fuel power stations, gas-fired have the shortest start-up time.
Be aware of the advantages of pumped storage systems in order to meet peak demand, and as a means of storing energy for later use.
P1 Lesson 19&20 The use of water, wind and geothermal energy resources to generate electricity
b Water and wind can be used to drive turbines directly. Know the basic principles by which wind turbines operate.
Know that water can be used to drive turbines in a variety of ways, which include, but are not limited to, waves, tides and the falling of water in hydroelectric schemes.
d In some volcanic areas hot water and steam rise to the surface. The steam can be tapped and used to drive turbines. This is known as geothermal energy. Know the basic principles of how geothermal energy is used.
P1 Lesson 21 Solar energy and advantages of small scale energy generation
c Electricity can be produced directly from the Sun’s radiation. Know that solar cells can be used to generate electricity.
e Small-scale production of electricity may be useful in some areas and for some uses, eg hydroelectricity in remote areas and solar cells for roadside signs Be able to describe the advantages and disadvantages of the use of solar cells in generating electricity.
P1 Lesson 22&23 Effect of different energy resources on the environment
f Using different energy resources has different effects on the environment. Understand effects on the environment such as: the release of substances into the atmosphere, the production of waste materials, noise and visual pollution, the destruction of wildlife habitats.
Understand that carbon capture and storage is a rapidly evolving technology.
Understand that to prevent carbon dioxide building up in the atmosphere we can catch and store it; some of the best natural containers are old oil and gas fields, such as those under the North Sea.
Evaluate different methods of generating electricity given data including start-up times, costs of electricity generation and the total cost of generating electricity when factors such as building and decommissioning are taken into account. The reliability of different methods should also be understood.
P1.4.2 The National Grid P1 Lesson 24&25 The National Grid
a Electricity is distributed from power stations to consumers along the National Grid. Identify and label the essential parts of the National Grid.
b For a given power, increasing the voltage reduces the current required and this reduces the energy losses in the cables. Know why transformers are an essential part of the National Grid.
c The uses of step-up and step-down transformers in the National Grid
Summary of P1.3 & 1.4 P1 Lesson 26 Summary of P1.3 and P1.4
Summary of sections P1.3 and P1.4